Evan was in his bedroom when he heard the sound of breaking glass. He went out to the kitchen to see a vase broken on the floor and his dog walking away. Evan said “the dog broke the vase!” This statement is an
observation because he knows that his dog broke the vase.
observation because he heard the vase break before he came into the room.
inference because he formed a logical conclusion based on the evidence.
inference because he is blaming the dog without any proof.
You are writing a report on whether global warming really exists. Which of the following resources would be the most scientifically reliable?
an article containing documented experiments and data
a newspaper article quoting leaders of several countries
a website with articles posted by people around the world
an article containing a poll taken of students at leading universities
A scientist in London and a scientist in California both conducted independent investigations that produced similar results.
What does this mean about the data that was collected?
The findings are considered stronger and more reliable because they were repeated.
The scientists will have to compete for the credit for this discovery.
The scientific community will vote on the name of any resulting theory, in order to keep things fair.
The findings are automatically promoted to a law because they were proven by two different scientists.
What would be the best tool to measure the amount of matter in an object?
Scientists tracking the populations of certain freshwater fish have found an increase in the female to male ratio of several smaller fish species over the last 10 years. One group of scientists have analyzed the data and hypothesized that medications in wastewater have contributed to this change in fish populations. Another group of scientists have hypothesized that this population trend is part of a cycle related to climate and ecosystem changes.
If these two groups of scientists have access to the same population data, why have they formed two very different hypotheses?
A hypothesis is an educated guess that is not based on scientific data.
The hypothesis does not matter as much as the resulting experiments and data.
Scientists interpret data in different ways to meet different agendas and goals.
The scientists’ varied backgrounds and specialties can influence their hypotheses.
Which situation would be considered pseudoscience?
Students gather to identify species of plants in their neighborhood.
A student’s lucky shirt helps him do well on a job interview.
Students successfully petition for organic food in the cafeteria.
A student tries eating all natural foods for one month to see if she has more energy.
What instrument is used to measure the average kinetic energy in a substance?
Leah is trying to determine how music affects the growth of plants. She hypothesizes that classical music will cause a plant to grow at a higher rate than no music or rap music. She grows nine tomato plants in similar lighting, temperature, and soil. Three are exposed to classical music 24 hours a day, three are exposed to rap music 24 hours a day, and three are grown in complete silence. Leah measures the growth of the plants every day and finds that the plants all seem to have the same rate of growth.
What is missing from Leah’s scientific investigation?
an experiment that takes careful and regular measurements
a specific hypothesis to test with a controlled experiment
experimental data that can be recorded and analyzed
research on what other scientists have found on this topic
The Theory of Evolution states that small changes in genetic material accumulate in each generation and can, over time, significantly change a population.
Which of the following statements explains why this is a scientific theory?
It is the best explanation based on the evidence available.
It corresponds to the opinions and beliefs of the majority of the scientific population.
It is a scientific law that has been supported by experimental data.
It describes natural events without trying to explain why they happen.
All of the following are true about science except
It is a body of knowledge.
It does not change once a law is discovered.
It is tested by many scientists over time.
It uses the scientific method.
Which of the following could be considered a scientific statement?
“Pizza is the best food on Earth.”
“I believe in life on other planets.”
“It appears that ants live in colonies.”
“I think nuclear energy is bad.”
Which statement best describes scientific laws?
Scientific laws are scientists’ opinions of why events occur in nature.
Scientific laws describe specific relationships in nature without offering an explanation.
Scientific laws explain why natural events occur.
Scientific laws were theories that have been tested, proven, and adopted as laws.
Observation and experimentation have led scientists to accept a theory about the atom. This theory is called the Atomic Theory. Scientific evidence collected and observed by scientists over time suggests that the atom has a nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, and electrons that travel as waves around the nucleus.What makes this a scientific theory?
It has been proven to be scientific fact through all the experiments and investigations.
It is based on the beliefs and opinions of the majority of the scientific community.
It is an observation of the natural world that has been proven as fact.
It is based on many scientific investigations and is accepted by the majority of scientists.
Convert 238 cm to the unit km.
2.38 x 105 km
2.38 x 107 km
The molecular clock theory uses genetic traits to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.
Which of the following statements explains why this is considered to be a theory?
Many scientific investigations have provided evidence to support this as the best explanation of the data.
This is an opinion held by a group of scientists that cannot be proven or disproven.
Because many scientists interpret the same data differently, it cannot be considered anything more than a theory.
This is an educated guess made by a scientist who published his findings for others to read.
Astrology is a pseudoscience because
it needs to be tested more before it can be a real science.
it claims to be, but is not, a science.
it is a controversial science.
it is a new and unproven science.
What is the relationship between a scientific theory and a scientific law?
A theory becomes a law after years of experimentation.
A law becomes a theory after it is verified by scientists around the world.
A law describes what happens but a theory explains why it happens.
A theory is a mathematical prediction but a law is an explanation.
The density of a sample of metal is calculated using these three different sets of data: 1.2 g/mL, 1.4 g/mL, and 1.1 g/mL. If the true density of the metal is 1.2 g/mL, what can be said about these calculated density values?
The set is both accurate and precise.
The set is accurate but not precise.
The set is precise but not accurate.
The set is neither accurate nor precise.
It would not be practical to use scientific experimentation to test the effect of
texture on the beauty of a sculpture.
color on brain waves and function.
adrenaline on the mating behaviors of animals.
pH on the color of flowers.
The atoms and molecules in a gas are in constant motion. Temperature is a measure of this motion. How are these related?
As temperature increases, the molecules and atoms move faster.
As temperature decreases, the molecules and atoms move farther apart.
As temperature increases, the atoms and molecules move farther apart.
As temperature decreases, the molecules and atoms move faster.
What is the main energy conversion that occurs when you plug in a lamp?
Electrical energy is converted to nuclear energy.
Thermal energy is converted to electrical energy.
Electrical energy is converted to radiant energy.
Nuclear energy is converted to radiant energy.
Which of the following best represents potential energy being converted to kinetic energy?
A roller coaster starts at the top of a hill and then rolls down the hill.
A pitcher throws a baseball, and then the batter hits a homerun.
A man jogs around the block and then stops to drink an energy drink.
A woman peddles her bicycle across town and back again.
What features make a question scientific, and why are some questions beyond the boundaries of scientific investigation?
Be sure to include examples to support your answer.
Is it possible for several scientists who have never met each other to contribute to the same scientific knowledge, theory, or law?
Explain your answer.
A scientific theory is considered to be the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer for a given phenomenon. Explain what makes a theory such a strong explanation.
Do you think creativity can contribute to scientific inquiry and investigation? Provide an example and explain your answer.
Many scientists accept a theory about the origin of the universe, called the Big Bang Theory. Describe at least one piece of scientific evidence that is used to support this theory of the origin of the universe.