Explain how living organisms can carry out endergonic reactions.

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Part 1:
1.    Describe the chemical composition and configuration of most enzymes. Why are enzymes specific for their substrates?
2.    Suppose that you have isolated an extract from a plant tissue and you found that the extract actually speeds up the rate of a particular reaction. What kind of information would you collect to confirm that your extract is an enzyme? (Remember the more information you gather, the stronger your case)
3.    Explain what occurs during Krebs citric acid cycle and electron transport by describing the following :
A: The exact location of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain in mitochondria.
B:  The chemiosmotic production of ATP during electron transport.
4.    Describe the electron transport system. Your answer must include the following:  the source of the electrons, the eventual electron acceptor, the type of phosphorylation that occurs, and how hydrogen ions, are involved.
5.    Trace the path of a carbon dioxide molecule from the point at which it enters a C3 plant to its incorporation into a glucose molecule. Include the role leaf anatomy and the biochemical pathway(s) in your discussion.
6.    The herbicide paraquat has been used widely in the past by drug enforcement agencies to control marijuana growth. Paraquat is a redox agent that chemically oxidizes NADPH to NADP+. Explain how this herbicide kills plants.
Part 2:
A.    Answer these questions concerning the steps involved in glycolysis.
1.    Which steps occur in the cytoplasm of the cell?
2.    Which steps produce the most carbon dioxide?
3.    Which steps produce ATP?
4.    Name the end product in the branched metabolic pathway.
5.    Tell how many carbon atoms are present in glucose and pyruvate
B.    Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. Explain how ATP is involved in each other following energy transfer processes.
2.    Fermentation
C.    Membranes are important structural features of cells. Describe the role of membranes in the synthesis of ATP in cellular respiration.
D.    Write the complete summary reaction for cellular respiration. Explain why this reaction is called a redox reaction. Include in your discussion which substance is oxidized and which substance is reduced.
E.    Compare and contrast the processes of alcoholic fermentation by a wine yeast and lactate fermentation by a muscle.
F.    Describe or sketch the structure of a chloroplast. Explain where in the chloroplast the following are found.
G.    Explain how living organisms can carry out endergonic reactions.


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