In clinical settings, patients often present with many different types of anemia. Each type of anemia has its own causes and implications. For this reason, you must be able to differentiate between types of anemia as well as identify factors that put patients at greater risk of experiencing related complications. As you prepare for this Discussion, consider the following patient case studies:
Case Study 1
An 82-year-old female presents to the office complaining of fatigue, dizziness, weakness, and increasing dyspnea on exertion. She has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Medications include warfarin 2 milligrams po daily, lisinopril 10 milligrams po daily, and simvastatin 10 milligrams po daily. There are no known drug allergies. The physical exam reveals a 5’2” older female. Her weight is 128 pounds, blood pressure is 144/80, heart rate is 98, temperature is 98 degrees Fahrenheit, and O2 saturation is 98%. Further examination reveals the following:
Eyes: + pallor conjunctiva
Cardiac: irregular rhythm. No S3 S4 or M. NO JVD
Lungs: CTA w/o rales, wheezes, or rhonchi
Abdomen: soft, BS +, + epigastric tenderness. No organomegaly, rebound, or guarding
Rectal: no stool in rectal vault
• Review Chapter 237 in Part 21 of the Buttaro et al. text.
• Select one of the three case studies. Reflect on the provided patient information including history, physical exams, and lab reports.
• Think about a differential diagnosis. Consider the role the patient history, physical exam, and lab reports played in the diagnosis.
• Reflect on the pathophysiology of the type of anemia that you diagnosed, as well as potential treatment options. Consider the causes of this type of anemia. Think about whether the patient should be referred for specialized care.
By Day 4
Post an explanation of the differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study that you selected. Describe the role the patient history, physical exam, and lab reports played in the diagnosis. Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the type of anemia that you diagnosed, as well as potential treatment options. Include causes for this type of anemia.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.