A. “For the purposes of the tax code a qualifying child is a son, daughter, stepchild, eligible foster child, brother, sister, half brother, half sister, stepbrother, stepsister, or a descendant of any of them who is (a) under age 19 at the end of the year, (b) under age 24 at the end of the year and a full-time student, or (c) of any age if permanently and totally disabled, and has lived with you for more than half of the year and has not provided more than half of his or her own support for the year.
B. a person between birth and full growth;
C. a son or daughter;
D. a human fetus;
1. ____ Which definition best exemplifies a stipulative definition?
2. ____ Which definition is an example of definition by a single synonym?
3. ____ (T/F?) “human” in definition D is a genus.
4. ____ (T/F?) In definition A, the terms son, daughter, stepchild, eligible foster child, brother, sister, half brother, half sister, stepbrother, stepsister, or a descendant of any of them are all synonyms of qualifying child.
5. ____ (T/F?) In definition A, phrases (a), (b), and (c) could be said to be diffentiae [differences].
6. ____ (T/F?) “Descendant” is a poor definition of child since it is figurative.
TOO BROAD (B), TOO NARROW (N): For each of the definitions below indicate whether it is too broad (B) or too narrow (N).
7. ___ An automobile is any self-powered vehicle.
8. ___ A tax is a charge imposed by governments based on income.
9. ___ Profit is all the revenue derived from the sale of property or goods and services.
10. ___ Biology is the study of plant life.
11. ___ Debt is money owed to banks.
12. ___ Homicide is the deliberate and malicious killing of a human being.
FALLACIES: Use the following letters to identify the fallacies in the examples below: A. Slippery Slope, B. Hasty Generalization, C. Ad Hominem, D. Ad Populum, E. Ad Baculum, F. Post Hoc.
13. ____ Sam is riding her bike in her home town in Maine, minding her own business. A station wagon comes up behind her and the driver starts beeping his horn and then tries to force her off the road. As he goes by, the driver yells “get on the sidewalk where you belong!” Sam sees that the car has Ohio plates and concludes that all Ohio drivers are jerks.
14. ____ “The US shouldn’t get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die.”
15. ____ “This theory about a potential cure for cancer has been introduced by a doctor who is a known lesbian feminist. I don’t see why we should extend an invitation for her to speak at the World Conference on Cancer.”
16. ____ “I read the other day that most people really like the new gun control laws. I was sort of suspicious of them, but I guess if most people like them, then they must be okay.”
17. ____ You shouldn’t say such things against multiculturalism! If the chair heard what you were saying, you would never receive tenure. So, you had just better learn to accept that it is simply wrong to speak out against it.”
18. ____ The picture on Jim’s old TV set goes out of focus. Jim goes over, strikes the TV soundly on the side and the picture goes back into focus. Jim says hitting the TV fixed it.
19. ____ “Yeah, I know some people say that cheating on tests is wrong. But we all know that everyone does it, so it’s okay.”
20. ___”We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they’ll be charging $40,000 a semester!”